Theory and General Texts in Digital Cultural Heritage*

Anderson, E., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C. Petridis, P., de Freitas, S. 2010 Developing Serious Games for Cultural Heritage: A State of the Art Review. Virtual Reality 14(4): 255-275.

Beck, A. 2013. Open Access to Heritage Resources – Risk, Opportunity, or Paradigm Shift? Archäologie und Informationssysteme pp. 40-48.

Benjamin, W. 1936 (1968). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Illuminations, 217-51. New York: Schocken Books.

Bentkowska-Kafel, A. and Denard, H. (eds) 2012. Paradata and Transparency in Virtual Heritage. Digital Research in the Arts and Humanities Series. Ashgate. (Maynooth Library – Online).

Cameron, F. and Kenderdine, S. 2007. Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage: A Critical Discourse. The MIT Press. (Maynooth Library – Online)

Champion, E., 2011. Playing with the Past. Human-Computer Interaction Series. London: Springer-Verlag. (Maynooth Library – Online)

Chrysanthi, A. Murrieta Flores, P. and Papadopoulos, C. 2012. Thinking beyond the Tool: Archaeological Computing and the Interpretive Process. BAR Series 2344. Archaeopress.

Dawson, P., Levy, R. and Lyons, N. 2011. ‘Breaking the Fourth Wall’: 3D Virtual Worlds as tools for Knowledge Repatriation in Archaeology. Journal of Social Archaeology 11: 387-402.

Forte, M. 2010. Cyber-archaeology. BAR Series 2177. Archaeopress

Frischer, B. and Dakouri-Hild, A. 2008. Beyond Illustration: 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology. BAR Series 1805. Archaeopress.

Huggett, J. 2012. Core or Periphery? Digital Humanities from an Archaeological Perspective. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung. 37(3).

Huggett, J. 2004. Archaeology and the New Technological Fetishism. Archeologia e Calcolatori XV.

Kalay, Y., Kvan, T. and Affleck, J. 2008. New Heritage. New Media and Cultural Heritage. Routledge.

Kenderdine, S. 2016. Embodiment, Entanglement, and Immersion in Digital Cultural Heritage. In Schreibman, S. et al. A New Companion to Digital Humanities. John Wiley & Sons.

Kotoula, E. 2015. Virtualizing Conservation: Exploring and Developing Novel Digital Visualizations for Preventive and Remedial Conservation of Artefacts. E-Thesis. University of Southampton.

Malpas, J. 2008. Cultural Heritage in the Age of New Media. In New Heritage. New Media and Cultural Heritage. Routledge.

Manovich, L. 2006. The Poetics of Augmented Space. Visual Communication 5(2): 219-240.

Parry, R. 2005. Digital Heritage and the Rise of Theory in Museum Computing. In Museum Management and Curatorship 20(4).

Perry, S. and Beale, N. 2015. The Social Weba nd Archaeology’s Restructuring: Impact, Exploitation and Disciplinary ChangeOpen Archaeology 1(1)

Remondino, F and Campana, S. (eds) 2014. 3D Recording and Modelling in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage: Theory and Best Practices. Archaeopress. (Maynooth Library)

Richter, A., Petrovic, V., Vanoni, D., Parish, S. and Kuester, F. 2014. Digital Archaeological Landscapes and Replicated Artifacts. In Digital Heritage International Conference. 569-572.

Thwaites, H. 2013 Digital Heritage: What Happens When We Digitize Everything? In E. Ch’ng, V. Gaffney and J.D. Richards (eds) Visual Heritage in the Digital Age London: Springer. 327-348.

Zubrow, E. 2006. Digital Archaeology: a Historical Context. In Evans, T. and Daly, P. Digital Archaeology, Bridging Method & Theory. Routledge.

3D recording

General Texts

Namir, A., Carter, M. and Ferris, N. 2013. Sustainable Archaeology through Progressive Assembly 3D Digitization. World Archaeology 46(1): 137-154.

Boehler, W. and Marbs, A., 2002. 3D scanning instruments. CIPA – ISPRS workshop on
scanning for cultural heritage recording, Corfu, Greece.

Earl, G., Martinez, K., and Malzbender, T. 2010. Archaeological Applications of Polynomial Texture Mapping: Analysis, Conservation and Representation. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(8).

English Heritage 2013. Multi-light Imaging for Heritage Applications.

English Heritage 2011. 3D Laser Scanning for Heritage. Advice and Guidance to Users on Laser Scanning in Archaeology and Architecture.

Malzbender, T. Gelb, D. Wolters, H. Polynomial Texture Maps. Computer Graphics, Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001.

Mudge, M. et al. 2010. Principles and Practices of Robust, Photography-based Digital Imaging Techniques for Museums.

Suo, J., Ji, X. & Dai, Q., 2012. An overview of computational photography. Science China Information Sciences 55.

US Bureau of Land management Publication: Tech Note 248 on Photogrammetry.

Also see discussions in Cultural Heritage Imaging Forums.


Laser/3D Scanning, Photogrammetry, Multispectral

Applbaum, N and Applbaum, Y.H. 2005. The Use of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging in the Study of Ceramic and Clay Archaeological Artifacts from the Ancient Near East. X-rays for Archaeology. 231-245.

Boehler, W. and Marbs, A. 2004. 3D Scanning and Photogrammetry for Heritage Applications: A Comparison. In Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Geoinformatics Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. 

Chow, S.-K. and Chan, K.-L. 2009. Reconstruction of Photorealistic 3D Model of Ceramic Artefacts for Interactive Virtual Exhibition. Journal of Cultural Heritage 10(2).

De Reu, J. et al. 2013. Towards a Three-dimensional Cost-effective Registration of the Archaeological Heritage. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2).

Fischer, C & Kakoulli, I. 2006. Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imaging Technologies in Conservation: Current Research and Potential ApplicationsReviews in Conservation 7.

Forte, M., et al. 3D Archaeology at ÇatalhöyükJournal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies.

Hollaus, F. 2014. Multispectral Imaging of Historic Handwritings. Proceedings of the 40th CAA-International Conference. 250-257. 

Kleber, F., Hollaus, F. and Sablatnig, R. 2014. Multispectral Image Analysis of a Censored
Postcard from 1942. Proceedings of the 40th CAA-International Conference. 258-263.  

Rami, A.-R. 2012. Photogrammetry for Archaeological Documentation and Cultural Heritage Conservation. In D. C. Da Silva (Ed.), Special Applications of Photogrammetry. InTechOpen.

Remondino, F. 2006. Image Based 3D Modelling: A Review. The Photogrammetric Record 21.

Remondino, F. 2011. Heritage Recording and 3D Modeling with Photogrammetry and 3D Scanning. Remote Sensing 3(12).

Ruther, H. et al. 2009. Laser scanning for conservation and research of African cultural heritage sites: the case study of Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(9).

Sanz, J. O., Docampo, M. D. L. L. G., Rodríguez, S. M., Sanmartín, M. T. R., & Cameselle, G. M. 2010. A Simple Methodology for Recording Petroglyphs Using Low-cost Digital Image Correlation Photogrammetry and Consumer-grade Digital Cameras. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(12).

Shiel, P. 2010. Hyperspectral Image Analysis for Questioned Historical Documents. MSc Thesis in Computer Science.

Yastikli, N. 2007. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Using Digital Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning. Journal of Cultural Heritage 8(4).

Reflectance Transformation Imaging

Caine, M., and Magen, M. 2011. Pixels and Parchment: The Application of RTI and Infrared Imaging to the Dead Sea Scrolls. In EVA London.

Duffy, S. M., Vi, C., Vi, W. G., Lynn, R., and Lynn, R. 2010. Polynomial Texture Mapping at Roughting Linn Rock Art Site. In Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Mid-Term Symposium’Close Range Image Measurement Techniques XXXVIII.

Karsten, A., and  Earl, G. 2010. HMS Stirling Castle, Kent. The Stirling Castle Wood Recording Project. A Pilot Study to Compare Traditional and Innovative Recording Techniques for Waterlogged Wood. In English Heritage Research Reports

Earl, G., et al. 2011. Reflectance Transformation Imaging Systems for Ancient Documentary Artefacts. In Electronic Visualisation and the Arts.

Earl, G., Beale, G., Martinez, K., and Pagi, H. 2010. Polynomial Texture Mapping and Related Imaging Technologies for the Recording, Analysis and Presentation of Archaeological Materials. In International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVIII.

Kotoula, E. 2012. Application of RTI in Museum Conservation. In Archaeology in the Digital Era. Papers from the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference (Southampton 2012).

Kotoula, E., and Kyranoudi, M. 2013. Study of Ancient Greek and Roman Coins Using Reflectance Transformation Imaging. E-Conservation Magazine 25.

Kotoula, E. 2014. Papyrus RTI Case Study. ACRG, University of Southampton.

Kotoula, E. 201. Icons RTI Case Study. ACRG, University of Southampton.

Virtual & Augmented Reality

General Texts 

Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S. and MacIntyre, B. 2001. Recent Advances in Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 21(6).

Azuma, R. 2001. Augmented Reality: Approaches and Technical Challenges. In Barfield, W. and Caudell, T. (eds) Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Caarls, J. et al. 2009. Augmented Reality for Art, Design and Cultural Heritage – System Design and EvaluationEURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing. 

Carrozzino, M., and Bergamasco, M. 2010. Beyond Virtual Museums: Experiencing Immersive Virtual Reality in Real Museums. Journal of Cultural Heritage 11(4).

Chang, M. et al. 2011 (Eds). Edutainment Technologies. Educational Games and Virtual Reality. Augmented Reality Applications. 6th International Conference on E-Learning and Games. Taipei, Taiwan.

Economou, M. and Pujol-Tost, L. 2007. Evaluating the Impact of New Technologies on Cultural Heritage Visitors. In McLoughlin, J., Kaminski, J. and Sodagar, B. (eds) Technology Strategy, Management and Socio-economic Impact. Technology 2. Archaeolingua.

Eve, S. 2012. Augmenting Phenomenology: Using Augmented Reality to Aid Archaeological Phenomenology in the Landscape. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19(4): 582-600.

Granström, H. 2013. Elements in Games for Virtual Heritage Applications. Master Thesis. University of Skövde.

Haller, M., Billinghurst, M., and Thomas, B.H. (Eds) 2007. Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality: Interfaces and Design. IDEA Group Publishing.

Milgram P. and Kishino F. 1994. A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays. IEICE Transactions on Information Systems 77.

Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A. and Kishino F.1994. Augmented Reality: A Class of Displays on the Reality-Virtuality Continuum.Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies.

Noh, Z., Shahrizal Sunar, M., Pan, Z. 2009. A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System. In Learning by Playing. Game-based Education System Design and Development Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 5670.

Pujol, L. 2004. Archaeology, Museums and Virtual Reality. Digit HVM. Revista Digital d’ Humanitats 6.

Pujol, L. & Champion, E. Evaluating Presence in Cultural Heritage ProjectsInternational Journal of Heritage Studies 18(1).

Sylaiou, S., Liarokapis, F., Kotsakis, K., Patias, P. 2009. Virtual Museums, a Survey and Some Issues for Consideration. Journal of Cultural Heritage 10.

Shumaker, R. and Lackey, S. 2014 (Eds). Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference, VAMR 2014. Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Sylaiou, S., Mania, K., Karoulis, A., White, M. 2010. Exploring the Relationship between Presence and Enjoyment in a Virtual Museum. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 68.

The Rise and Fall of Virtual Reality:

Tan, B-K, Rahaman, H. 2009. Virtual Heritage: Reality and Criticism. In Tifadi,T. and Dorta, T. (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAAD Futures 2009.

Zhou, F., Duh, H. and Billinghurst, M. 2008. Trends in Augmented Reality Tracking, Interaction and Display: A Review of Ten Years of ISMAR. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR).


Vlahakis, V. et al. 2002. Archeoguide: An Augmented Reality Guide for Archaeological Sites. In Computer Graphics in Art History and Archaeology.

Rua, H. and Alvito, P. 2011. Living the Past: 3D Models, Virtual Reality and Game Engines as Tools for Supporting Archaeology and the Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage – The Case-study of the Roman Villa of Casal de Freiria. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(12).

Ardito, C., Buono, P., Costabile, M.F., Lanzilotti, R. and Pederson, T. 2007. Re-experiencing History in Archaeological Parks by Playing a Mobile Augmented Reality Game. In Proceedings of the 2007 OTM Confederated International Conference: On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems.

Billinghurst, M., Kato, H. and Poupyrev, I. 2001. The MagicBook: Α Τransitional AR Ιnteface. Computers & Graphics 25.

Chalmers, A. & Zanyi, E. 2009. Real Virtuality: Emerging Technology for Virtually Recreating Reality. Becta.

Chrysanthi, A., Papadopoulos, C., Frankland, T., Earl, G. 2013. ‘Tangible Pasts’: User-Centred Design of a Mixed Reality Application for Cultural Heritage. In Archaeology in the Digital Era. CAA 2012 Proceedings of Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2012.

Garagnani, S. & Manferdini, A.M. 2011. Virtual and Augmented Reality Applications for Cultural Heritage. SIGRADI. Cultura Aumentada.

Pletinckx, D. 1999. Virtual Reality for Heritage Presentation at Ename

Forte, M., Pescarin, S. and Pujol, L. 2006. VR Applications, New Devices and Museums: Visitors’ Feedback and Learning. A Preliminary Report. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST 2006).

Kenderdine, S. 2010. PLACE-Hampi, Ancient Hampi and Hampi-Live- an entanglement of people-things. In M. Forte (ed.) Cyber-archaeology. BAR Series 2177. Archaeopress.

Magnenat-Thalmann, N. and Papagiannakis, G. Recreating Daily Life in Pompeii. Virtual Archaeology Review 1(2).

Stricker, D., Pagani, A. and Zoellner, M. 2009. In-Situ Visualization for Cultural Heritage Sites using Novel Augmented Reality Technologies. In International meeting on Graphic Archaeology and Informatics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation (ARQUEOLÓGICA 2.0).

White, M., Petridis, P., Liarokapis, F. 2007. Multimodal Mixed-Reality Interfaces for Visualizing Digital Heritage. International Journal of Architectural Computing 5 (2).

3D/Heritage Visualisation

General Texts 

Bateman, J. 2000. Immediate Realities: An Anthropology of Computer Visualisation in Archaeology. Internet Archaeology 8.

Buczynska-Garewicz, H. 2007. Illusions of Virtual Reality. 3D VisA Bulletin 3.

Clark, J. T. 2010. The Fallacy of Reconstruction. In Forte, M. Cyber-archaeology. Archaeopress.

Earl, G. 2006. At the Edges of the Lens. In Evans, T. and Daly, P. Digital Archaeology, Bridging Method & Theory. Routledge.

Earl, G. 2008. Video Killed Engaging VR? Computer Visualisations on the Television Screen. In Smiles, S and Moser, S. Envisioning the Past: Archaeology and the Image. Blackwell. 

Earl, G. 2013. Modeling in Archaeology: Computer Graphic and other Digital PastsPerspectives on science 21(2).

Eiteljorg, H. 2000. The Compelling Computer Image – A Double-Edged Sword. Internet Archaeology 8.

Gillings, M. 2005. The Real, the Virtually Real, and the Hyperreal: The Role of VR in Archaeology. In Smiles and Moser (eds) Envisioning the Past. Archaeology and the Image.

Hermon, S. and Fabian, P. 2002. Virtual Reconstruction of Archaeological Sites. Some Archaeological Scientific Considerations. In Niccolucci, F. (ed.). Virtual Archaeology. Proceedings of the VAST Euroconference, Arezzo 24-25 November 2000. ArcheoPress.

Jacobsen, J., and Holden, L. 2007. Virtual Heritage: Living in the Past. Techne 10(3).

Jeffrey, S. 2015. Challenging Heritage Visualisation: Beauty, Aura and DemocratisationOpen Archaeology 1: 144-152.

Kensek, K. Dodd, L. Cipolla, N. 2004. Fantastic Reconstructions or Reconstructions of the Fantastic? Tracking and Presenting Ambiguity, Alternatives, and Documentation in Virtual Worlds. Automation in Construction 13.

Moser, S. 2001. Archaeological Representation: The Visual Conventions for Constructing Knowledge about the Past. In Hodder, I. (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today.

Pletinckx, D. 2007. Interpretation Management, How to make sustainable visualisations of the past. EPOCH Knowhow book.

Roberts, J. & Ryan, N. 1997. Alternative Archaeological Representations within Virtual Worlds. In Proceedings of the 4th UK Virtual Reality Specialist Interest Group Conference.

Rua, H. and Alvito, R. 2011. Living the Past: 3D models, virtual reality, and game engines as tools for supporting archaeology and the reconstruction of cultural heritage – the case study of the Roman Villa of Casal de Freiria. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 3296-3308.

Sanders, D. Persuade or Perish: Moving Virtual Heritage beyond Pretty Pictures of the Past. In Proceedings VSMM ’01 Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. IEEE.

The London Charter:

Thomas, J. 2008. On the Ocularcentrism of Archaeology. In Thomas, J and Jorge, V. O. Archaeology and the Politics of Vision in a Post-Modern Context. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Watterson, A. 2015. Beyond Digital Dwelling: Re-thinking Interpretive Visualisation in ArchaeologyOpen Archaeology 1(1)

Wittur, J. 2013. Computer-generated 3d-Visualisations in Archaeology. Between Added Value and Deception. BAR Series 2463. Archaeopress. (Maynooth Library)


Dawson, P., Levy, R., Gardner, D., Walls, M. 2007. Simulating the Behaviour of Light inside Arctic Dwellings. World Archaeology 39.

Devlin, K. and Chalmers, A. Realistic Visualisation of the Pompeii Frescoes. ACM.

Mamoli, M. 2014. Towards a Theory of Reconstructing Ancient Libraries. PhD Thesis.

Oetelaar, T. Reconstructing the Baths of Caracalla. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.

Papadopoulos, C. and Earl, G. 2009. Structural and Lighting Models for the Minoan Cemetery at Phourni, Crete. In Proceedings of the 10th VAST International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.

Papadopoulos, C. and Earl, G. 2013. Formal Three-dimensional Computational Analyses of Archaeological Spaces. In Paliou, E., Lieberwirth, U., Polla, S. (eds) Spatial Analysis in Past Built Spaces. De Gruyter.

Papadopoulos, C. and Sakellarakis, Y. 2013. Virtual Windows to the Past: Reconstructing the ‘Ceramics Workshop’ at Zominthos, Crete. In CAA 2010 Proceedings of Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2010 (Granada, Spain 6-9 April 2010). BAR Series 2494. Archaeopress.

Sundstedt, V., Chalmers, A., Martinez, P. 2004. High Fidelity Reconstruction of the Ancient Egyptian Temple of Kalabsha. ACM.

3D Printing

Beale, G. & Reilly, P. 2014. ‘Additive Archaeology: Towards a Virtual Archaeology Reprinted?’ In Papadopoulos et al. Archaeological Research in the Digital Age. Proceedings of the 1st Computer Apllications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference – Greek Chapter (CAA-GR). 6-8 March 2014, Rethymno, Crete.

Neely, L., Langer, M. 2013. Please Feel the Museum: The Emergence of 3D Printing and Scanning. Museums and the Web 2013, Conference, Portland, OR, USA, April 17-20

Neumuller, M., Reichinger, A., Rist, F., Kern, C. 2014. 3D Printing for Cultural Heritage: Preservation, Accessibility, Research and Education. In Ioannides, M., Quak, E. 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage. Springer.

Olsen, B., Gordon, J., Runnels, C., and Chomyszak, S. 2014. Experimental Three-Dimensional Printing of a Lower Paleolithic Handaxe: An Assessment of the Technology and Analytical Value. Lithic Technology 39(3): 162-172.

The Economist. The Printed World

I.materialise 2015. 3D Printing Historical Artifacts


Noordegraaf, J., Bartholomew, A. and Eveleigh, A. Modeling Crowdsourcing for Cultural Heritage. MW2014: Museums and the Web 2014.

Owens, T. 2013. Digital cultural heritage and the crowdCurator: The Museum Journal, 56(1), 121–130.

Ridge, M. 2013. From tagging to theorizing: Deepening engagement with cultural heritage through crowdsourcing. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(4), 435–450.

Ridge, M. (ed) 2014. Crowdsourcing our Cultural Heritage. Ashgate. (Maynooth Library)


Conference Proceedings/ Journals

Electronic Visualisations and the Arts – London:

Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference:

The International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST).

Digital Humanities: 

ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage:

International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era:

Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage:

*Please note, this is by no means a comprehensive bibliographic list. You are expected to do your own research and find relevant case studies and papers on the theory and practice of Digital Heritage.