Theory and General Texts in Digital Cultural Heritage*

Anderson, E., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C. Petridis, P., de Freitas, S. 2010 Developing Serious Games for Cultural Heritage: A State of the Art Review. Virtual Reality 14(4): 255-275.

Beck, A. 2013. Open Access to Heritage Resources – Risk, Opportunity, or Paradigm Shift? Archäologie und Informationssysteme pp. 40-48.

Benjamin, W. 1936 (1968). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Illuminations, 217-51. New York: Schocken Books.

Bentkowska-Kafel, A. and Denard, H. (eds) 2012. Paradata and Transparency in Virtual Heritage. Digital Research in the Arts and Humanities Series. Ashgate. (Maynooth Library – Online).

Cameron, F. and Kenderdine, S. 2007. Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage: A Critical Discourse. The MIT Press. (Maynooth Library – Online)

Caraher, W., Olson, B. 2017. Visions of Substance: 3D Imaging in Mediterranean Archaeology. The Digital Press. The University of North Dakota.

Champion, E., 2011. Playing with the Past. Human-Computer Interaction Series. London: Springer-Verlag. (Maynooth Library – Online)

Chrysanthi, A. Murrieta Flores, P. and Papadopoulos, C. 2012. Thinking beyond the Tool: Archaeological Computing and the Interpretive Process. BAR Series 2344. Archaeopress.

Dawson, P., Levy, R. and Lyons, N. 2011. ‘Breaking the Fourth Wall’: 3D Virtual Worlds as tools for Knowledge Repatriation in Archaeology. Journal of Social Archaeology 11: 387-402.

Forte, M. 2010. Cyber-archaeology. BAR Series 2177. Archaeopress

Frischer, B. and Dakouri-Hild, A. 2008. Beyond Illustration: 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology. BAR Series 1805. Archaeopress.

Grosman, L. 2016. Reaching the Point of No Return: The Computational Revolution in Archaeology. Annual review of Anthropology 45: 129-145.

Hess, M., Garside, D., Nelson, T, Robson, S., Weyrich, T. 2017. Object-based Teaching and Learning for a Critical Assessment of Digital Technologies in Arts and Cultural Heritage. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-2/W5, 2017 26th International CIPA Symposium 2017, 28 August–01 September 2017, Ottawa, Canada.

Huggett, J. 2012. Core or Periphery? Digital Humanities from an Archaeological Perspective. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung. 37(3).

Huggett, J. 2004. Archaeology and the New Technological Fetishism. Archeologia e Calcolatori XV.

Kalay, Y., Kvan, T. and Affleck, J. 2008. New Heritage. New Media and Cultural Heritage. Routledge.

Jared C. Katz and Alexandre Tokovinine 2017. The Past, Now Showing in 3D: An Introduction, Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Kenderdine, S. 2016. Embodiment, Entanglement, and Immersion in Digital Cultural Heritage. In Schreibman, S. et al. A New Companion to Digital Humanities. John Wiley & Sons.

Kotoula, E. 2015. Virtualizing Conservation: Exploring and Developing Novel Digital Visualizations for Preventive and Remedial Conservation of Artefacts. E-Thesis. University of Southampton.

Malpas, J. 2008. Cultural Heritage in the Age of New Media. In New Heritage. New Media and Cultural Heritage. Routledge.

Manovich, L. 2006. The Poetics of Augmented Space. Visual Communication 5(2): 219-240.

Parry, R. 2005. Digital Heritage and the Rise of Theory in Museum Computing. In Museum Management and Curatorship 20(4).

Perry, S. and Beale, N. 2015. The Social Web and Archaeology’s Restructuring: Impact, Exploitation and Disciplinary ChangeOpen Archaeology 1(1).

Pierre Alliez, Laurent Bergerot, Jean-Fran¸cois Bernard, Clotilde Boust, George Bruseker, et al.. Digital 3D Objects in Art and Humanities: challenges of creation, interoperability and preservation. White paper: A result of the PARTHENOS Workshop held in Bordeaux at Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine and at Archeovision Lab. (France), November 30th – December 2nd, 2016.. PARTHENOS. Digital 3D Objects in Art and Humanities: challenges of creation, interoperability and preservation, Nov 2016, Bordeaux, France. pp.71, 2017

Remondino, F and Campana, S. (eds) 2014. 3D Recording and Modelling in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage: Theory and Best Practices. Archaeopress. (Maynooth Library)

Richter, A., Petrovic, V., Vanoni, D., Parish, S. and Kuester, F. 2014. Digital Archaeological Landscapes and Replicated Artifacts. In Digital Heritage International Conference. 569-572.

Thwaites, H. 2013 Digital Heritage: What Happens When We Digitize Everything? In E. Ch’ng, V. Gaffney and J.D. Richards (eds) Visual Heritage in the Digital Age London: Springer. 327-348.

Zubrow, E. 2006. Digital Archaeology: a Historical Context. In Evans, T. and Daly, P. Digital Archaeology, Bridging Method & Theory. Routledge.

3D recording

General Texts

Agosto, E., Bornaz, L. 2017. 3D Models in Cultural Heritage: Approaches for Their Creation and Use. International Journal of Computational Methods in Heritage Science (IJCMHS) 1(1)

Namir, A., Carter, M. and Ferris, N. 2013. Sustainable Archaeology through Progressive Assembly 3D Digitization. World Archaeology 46(1): 137-154.

Boehler, W. and Marbs, A., 2002. 3D scanning instruments. CIPA – ISPRS workshop on
scanning for cultural heritage recording, Corfu, Greece.

Kirsten Butcher, Madlyn Runburg, Michelle Hudson 2017. Using digitized objects to promote critical thinking and engagement in classrooms, Library Hi Tech News

Earl, G., Martinez, K., and Malzbender, T. 2010. Archaeological Applications of Polynomial Texture Mapping: Analysis, Conservation and Representation. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(8).

English Heritage 2013. Multi-light Imaging for Heritage Applications.

English Heritage 2011. 3D Laser Scanning for Heritage. Advice and Guidance to Users on Laser Scanning in Archaeology and Architecture.

Malzbender, T. Gelb, D. Wolters, H. Polynomial Texture Maps. Computer Graphics, Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001.

Mudge, M. et al. 2010. Principles and Practices of Robust, Photography-based Digital Imaging Techniques for Museums.

Pintus, R., et al. 2016. A Survey of Geometric Analysis in Cultural Heritage. Computer Graphics Forum 35(1): 4-31.

Suo, J., Ji, X. & Dai, Q., 2012. An overview of computational photography. Science China Information Sciences 55.

US Bureau of Land management Publication: Tech Note 248 on Photogrammetry.

Uueni A., Apollonio F.I., Hiiop H. (2017) Photogrammetry and Multispectral Imaging for Conservation Documentation – Tools for Heritage Specialists. In: Ceccarelli M., Cigola M., Recinto G. (eds) New Activities For Cultural Heritage. Springer, Cham

Also see discussions in Cultural Heritage Imaging Forums.


Laser/3D Scanning, Photogrammetry, Multispectral

Applbaum, N and Applbaum, Y.H. 2005. The Use of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging in the Study of Ceramic and Clay Archaeological Artifacts from the Ancient Near East. X-rays for Archaeology. 231-245.

Boehler, W. and Marbs, A. 2004. 3D Scanning and Photogrammetry for Heritage Applications: A Comparison. In Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Geoinformatics Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. 

Chow, S.-K. and Chan, K.-L. 2009. Reconstruction of Photorealistic 3D Model of Ceramic Artefacts for Interactive Virtual Exhibition. Journal of Cultural Heritage 10(2).

Davis, A., et al. Pilbara Rock Art: Laser Scanning, Photogrammetry and 3D Photographic Reconstruction as Heritage Management Tools. Heritage Science 5:25.

De Reu, J. et al. 2013. Towards a Three-dimensional Cost-effective Registration of the Archaeological Heritage. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2).

Fischer, C & Kakoulli, I. 2006. Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imaging Technologies in Conservation: Current Research and Potential ApplicationsReviews in Conservation 7.

Forte, M., et al. 3D Archaeology at ÇatalhöyükJournal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies.

Graham, C.A. et al. 2017. Epic Dimensions: A Comparative Analysis of 3D Acquisition Methods. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-2/W5, 2017 

Hollaus, F. 2014. Multispectral Imaging of Historic Handwritings. Proceedings of the 40th CAA-International Conference. 250-257. 

Kleber, F., Hollaus, F. and Sablatnig, R. 2014. Multispectral Image Analysis of a Censored
Postcard from 1942. Proceedings of the 40th CAA-International Conference. 258-263.  

Longo, I. E. 2016. Three-Dimensional Epigraphic Recording at Stobi (FYROM): Creating a Virtual Lapidarium. Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada.

Pamart, A. Odile Guillon, St´ephan Faraci, Eloi Gattet, M. Genevois, et al.. Multispectral photogrammetric data acquisition and processing for wall paintings studies. ISPRS – International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2017, Nafplio, Greece. Copernicus GmbH, XLII-2-W3, pp.559–566, 2017.

Pierdicca, R.  et al. 2016. Virtual reconstruction of archaeological heritage using a combination of photogrammetric techniques: Huaca Arco Iris, Chan Chan, Peru. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2016, Pages 80–90.

Rami, A.-R. 2012. Photogrammetry for Archaeological Documentation and Cultural Heritage Conservation. In D. C. Da Silva (Ed.), Special Applications of Photogrammetry. InTechOpen.

Remondino, F. 2006. Image Based 3D Modelling: A Review. The Photogrammetric Record 21.

Remondino, F. 2011. Heritage Recording and 3D Modeling with Photogrammetry and 3D Scanning. Remote Sensing 3(12).

Ruther, H. et al. 2009. Laser scanning for conservation and research of African cultural heritage sites: the case study of Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(9).

Sanz, J. O., Docampo, M. D. L. L. G., Rodríguez, S. M., Sanmartín, M. T. R., & Cameselle, G. M. 2010. A Simple Methodology for Recording Petroglyphs Using Low-cost Digital Image Correlation Photogrammetry and Consumer-grade Digital Cameras. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(12).

Shiel, P. 2010. Hyperspectral Image Analysis for Questioned Historical Documents. MSc Thesis in Computer Science.

Tournarde, V. et al. 2017. Computer Vision in the Temples of Karnak: Past, Present & Future. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-5/W1, 2017.

Van der Perre et al. 2016. Towards a Combined Use of IR, UV, and 3D-Imaging for the Study of Small Inscribed and Illuminated Artefacts. In: Homem, P.M. ed. Lights on…Cultural Heritage and Museums. 163-192.

Webb, Keats, E. 2017. Reflected Infrared and 3D Imaging for Object Documentation. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation.

Yastikli, N. 2007. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Using Digital Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning. Journal of Cultural Heritage 8(4).

Reflectance Transformation Imaging

Caine, M., and Magen, M. 2011. Pixels and Parchment: The Application of RTI and Infrared Imaging to the Dead Sea Scrolls. In EVA London.

Duffy, S. M., Vi, C., Vi, W. G., Lynn, R., and Lynn, R. 2010. Polynomial Texture Mapping at Roughting Linn Rock Art Site. In Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Mid-Term Symposium’Close Range Image Measurement Techniques XXXVIII.

Giachetti, A., et al. 2017. A Novel Framework for Highlight Reflectance Transformation Imaging. Computer Vision and Image Understanding.

Karsten, A., and  Earl, G. 2010. HMS Stirling Castle, Kent. The Stirling Castle Wood Recording Project. A Pilot Study to Compare Traditional and Innovative Recording Techniques for Waterlogged Wood. In English Heritage Research Reports

Earl, G., et al. 2011. Reflectance Transformation Imaging Systems for Ancient Documentary Artefacts. In Electronic Visualisation and the Arts.

Earl, G., Beale, G., Martinez, K., and Pagi, H. 2010. Polynomial Texture Mapping and Related Imaging Technologies for the Recording, Analysis and Presentation of Archaeological Materials. In International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVIII.

Kotoula, E. 2012. Application of RTI in Museum Conservation. In Archaeology in the Digital Era. Papers from the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference (Southampton 2012).

Kotoula, E., and Kyranoudi, M. 2013. Study of Ancient Greek and Roman Coins Using Reflectance Transformation Imaging. E-Conservation Magazine 25.

Kotoula, E. 2014. Papyrus RTI Case Study. ACRG, University of Southampton.

Kotoula, E. 201. Icons RTI Case Study. ACRG, University of Southampton.

3D/Heritage Visualisation

General Texts 

Bateman, J. 2000. Immediate Realities: An Anthropology of Computer Visualisation in Archaeology. Internet Archaeology 8.

Buczynska-Garewicz, H. 2007. Illusions of Virtual Reality. 3D VisA Bulletin 3.

Clark, J. T. 2010. The Fallacy of Reconstruction. In Forte, M. Cyber-archaeology. Archaeopress.

Earl, G. 2006. At the Edges of the Lens. In Evans, T. and Daly, P. Digital Archaeology, Bridging Method & Theory. Routledge.

Earl, G. 2008. Video Killed Engaging VR? Computer Visualisations on the Television Screen. In Smiles, S and Moser, S. Envisioning the Past: Archaeology and the Image. Blackwell. 

Earl, G. 2013. Modeling in Archaeology: Computer Graphic and other Digital PastsPerspectives on science 21(2).

Eiteljorg, H. 2000. The Compelling Computer Image – A Double-Edged Sword. Internet Archaeology 8.

Gillings, M. 2005. The Real, the Virtually Real, and the Hyperreal: The Role of VR in Archaeology. In Smiles and Moser (eds) Envisioning the Past. Archaeology and the Image.

Hermon, S. and Fabian, P. 2002. Virtual Reconstruction of Archaeological Sites. Some Archaeological Scientific Considerations. In Niccolucci, F. (ed.). Virtual Archaeology. Proceedings of the VAST Euroconference, Arezzo 24-25 November 2000. ArcheoPress.

Jacobsen, J., and Holden, L. 2007. Virtual Heritage: Living in the Past. Techne 10(3).

Jeffrey, S. 2015. Challenging Heritage Visualisation: Beauty, Aura and DemocratisationOpen Archaeology 1: 144-152.

Kensek, K. Dodd, L. Cipolla, N. 2004. Fantastic Reconstructions or Reconstructions of the Fantastic? Tracking and Presenting Ambiguity, Alternatives, and Documentation in Virtual Worlds. Automation in Construction 13.

Moser, S. 2001. Archaeological Representation: The Visual Conventions for Constructing Knowledge about the Past. In Hodder, I. (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today.

Pletinckx, D. 2007. Interpretation Management, How to make sustainable visualisations of the past. EPOCH Knowhow book.

Roberts, J. & Ryan, N. 1997. Alternative Archaeological Representations within Virtual Worlds. In Proceedings of the 4th UK Virtual Reality Specialist Interest Group Conference.

Rua, H. and Alvito, R. 2011. Living the Past: 3D models, virtual reality, and game engines as tools for supporting archaeology and the reconstruction of cultural heritage – the case study of the Roman Villa of Casal de Freiria. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 3296-3308.

Sanders, D. Persuade or Perish: Moving Virtual Heritage beyond Pretty Pictures of the Past. In Proceedings VSMM ’01 Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. IEEE.

The London Charter:

Thomas, J. 2008. On the Ocularcentrism of Archaeology. In Thomas, J and Jorge, V. O. Archaeology and the Politics of Vision in a Post-Modern Context. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Watterson, A. 2015. Beyond Digital Dwelling: Re-thinking Interpretive Visualisation in ArchaeologyOpen Archaeology 1(1)

Wittur, J. 2013. Computer-generated 3d-Visualisations in Archaeology. Between Added Value and Deception. BAR Series 2463. Archaeopress. (Maynooth Library)

3D Printing

Balletti, C., Ballarin, M., Guerra, F. 2017. 3D Printing: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. Journal of Cultural Heritage 26, 172-182.

Beale, G. & Reilly, P. 2014. ‘Additive Archaeology: Towards a Virtual Archaeology Reprinted?’ In Papadopoulos et al. Archaeological Research in the Digital Age. Proceedings of the 1st Computer Apllications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference – Greek Chapter (CAA-GR). 6-8 March 2014, Rethymno, Crete.

Brioschi S.A., Marino S.D. (2018) Hypothesis of Reconstruction of Ancient Cities Through 3D Printing: The Case-Study of Thurii. In: Amoruso G. (eds) Putting Tradition into Practice: Heritage, Place and Design. INTBAU 2017. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 3. Springer, Cham

Neely, L., Langer, M. 2013. Please Feel the Museum: The Emergence of 3D Printing and Scanning. Museums and the Web 2013, Conference, Portland, OR, USA, April 17-20

Neumuller, M., Reichinger, A., Rist, F., Kern, C. 2014. 3D Printing for Cultural Heritage: Preservation, Accessibility, Research and Education. In Ioannides, M., Quak, E. 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage. Springer.

Olsen, B., Gordon, J., Runnels, C., and Chomyszak, S. 2014. Experimental Three-Dimensional Printing of a Lower Paleolithic Handaxe: An Assessment of the Technology and Analytical Value. Lithic Technology 39(3): 162-172.

Scopigno, R., Cignoni, P., Pietroni, N., Callieri, M., Dellepiane, M. 2015. Digital Fabriacation Techniques for Cultural Heritage: A Survey. Computer Graphics Forum 36(1). 6-21.

The Economist. The Printed World

I.materialise 2015. 3D Printing Historical Artifacts

Williams, T., 2017. More than just a Novelty? Museum Visitor Interactions with 3D Printed Artifacts. Master of Arts. University of Washington.

ZHANG, F., CAMPBELL, R.I. and GRAHAM, I.J., 2012. Application of additive manufacturing to the digital restoration of archaeological artefacts. In: 2nd International Symposium on Cultural Heritage Conservation and Digitization, Beijing, China, CHCD2012, 2012, 5pp.


Noordegraaf, J., Bartholomew, A. and Eveleigh, A. Modeling Crowdsourcing for Cultural Heritage. MW2014: Museums and the Web 2014.

Owens, T. 2013. Digital cultural heritage and the crowdCurator: The Museum Journal, 56(1), 121–130.

Ridge, M. 2013. From tagging to theorizing: Deepening engagement with cultural heritage through crowdsourcing. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(4), 435–450.

Ridge, M. (ed) 2014. Crowdsourcing our Cultural Heritage. Ashgate. (Maynooth Library)


Conference Proceedings/ Journals

Electronic Visualisations and the Arts – London:

Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference:

The International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST).

Digital Humanities: 

ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage:

International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era:

Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage:

*Please note, this is by no means a comprehensive bibliographic list. You are expected to do your own research and find relevant case studies and papers on the theory and practice of Digital Heritage.